Quest for Speed
“For serious readers who are hungry for a good dose of early
cycling history and 19th century cycling technology!”
QUEST FOR SPEED – A History of Early Bicycle Racing, 1868 – 1903,
by Andrew Ritchie
Throughout its early history, the heavily technology-based sport of bicycle racing was engaged in a discourse, in words and actions, with bicycle manufacturers. The debate, and the industrial and social activity,in the last quarter of the 19th century, documents an intense search about how the bicycle could best harness the physical capabilities of the human body and achieve speed, endurance, comfort and utility.
In this period, bicycle racing demonstrated a continually evolving symbiotic relationship between the sport and its specialized tool – the bicycle itself – a theme which is one of the central concerns of this book. During its early evolution, the changing functional design of the bicycle was heavily influenced by considerations of sport and speed, as well as those of comfort and practicality.
This book provides a chronological account of the emergence of bicycle racing and bicycle technology between 1867 and 1903, focusing to a large extent on Britain, but also investigating France and the United States as the two other major players.
As a social and cultural history, Quest for Speed gives an outline of the social and institutional organization of cycling and the wider cultural, economic and technological context of the sport. In doing so, it tackles themes of class, nationality, industry and commerce, the press, speed, and the physical capacities of the human body.
Two themes have been crucial in motivating the organization of the book. Firstly, the ambivalent nature of the bicycle, both as a tool of sport and recreation and also as a method of practical utility transportation; and, secondly, the inextricable relationship between bicycle sport as both competition and recreation and the emerging bicycle industry and wider patterns of commerce and consumption.
The 19th century cycling ‘industrial complex’ presents a well-developed, early historical example of a ‘modern’ sport used to market constantly changing products to consumers. Designers, manufacturers, advertizing and marketing personnel and the cycling press were engaged in a new style of commercial activity dedicated to ‘the sport and pastime’ of cycling.
Quest for Speed – A History of Early Bicycle
Racing, 1868 – 1903
Table of Contents
– Sport, speed, technology and modernity
1. The origins of bicycle racing in England: technology, entertainment, sponsorship and publicity
– The earliest bicycle racing
– The beginning of commercial bicycle production, 1865-69
– Velocipede developments in France and the United States, 1867-69: their influence on the British sport
– Charles Spencer’s London gymnasium
– Bicycle competition as athletic novelty and public spectacle
– Links between manufacture and sport
– Varieties of competitive activity
– An elite emerges: match racing and championships
2. Expansion of bicycling in Britain: professionalism, amateurism and social class in the 1870s– A cutting edge, modern technological sport – Technological innovation at the birth of cycle sport – Amateurism and professionalism in the 1870s – Cycling at Oxford and Cambridge universities and associated class preconceptions – ‘Muscular Christianity’: the cycling career of Ion Keith-Falconer – ‘Gentlemen, not players’: the establishment of the Bicycle Union, 1877-78 – The Bicycle Touring Club, 1878 – Public recognition of bicycling
3. Bicycle racing in the United States in the late 1870s– Overview: American cycling in the late 1870s – The foundations of American cycling – Harry Etherington: bicycling entrepreneur and promoter of endurance spectacles – Etherington’s 1879 ‘Anglo-French’ tour of America and its repercussions – The founding of the League of American Wheelmen
4. Expansion of the high-wheel sport in the late 1870s and 1880s
– Overview: the new sport expands and matures– Bicycle racing infrastructure: roads conditions and track construction – Competition in Britain: amateurism and professionalism in the late 1870s and 1880s – Competition in France – British ‘Meets’, the Springfield Tournaments and the growth of international competition – New departures: tricycle racing and recreational tricycling 5. Speed and safety: ‘geared up ordinaries’, the ‘safety’ bicycle and the pneumatic revolution, 1885 – 1892 – Overview: intense development within the bicycle industry and the sport – Alternative designs: the ‘Facile’ and the ‘Kangaroo’ – The rear-driven ‘Rover safety’ and the first ‘safety’ races – The rise of road racing – Competition and the revolutionary pneumatic tire
6. The foundations of modern road racing in Britain, France and the United States: sport as business, and contested public space, in the 1890s– Overview: road competition in Britain and France – Sport as business and athletic celebration: the foundations of modern road racing in France – Opposition to organized road racing in Britain – Lacy Hillier: amateurism versus the ‘New Professionalism’ – Road racing in the United States 7. International competition, world championships and the foundation of the International Cyclists’ Association in 1892 – Overview: bicycle racing as a global sport – National championships, international competition and early ‘World Championships’ – The International Cyclists’ Association – World Champion: the international career of Arthur Zimmerman – Amateurism, professionalism and licensing schemes – The 1896 Olympic Games
8. Bicycle racing and modernity: the obsession with speed, distance and record-breaking at the turn of the century– Overview: the transformation of bicycle racing in the 1890s – Long-distance races on the road – Stage-races on the road and the origins of the Tour de France – ‘Stayer’ (paced) races – Six Day races – Professionalization and commercialization – ‘Gigantism’ and the pursuit of records as a social phenomenon – Sensationalism and ‘Gigantomania’ – Conclusion: the emergence of a modern, professional sports struct – Bicycle racing, speed, technology and social change
9. Non-competitive cycling in the 1890s
– A period of intensive technological change and sport development
– Reviewing the dynamics of social and technological change
A. Agents of change within the sport and industry
B. The spectacular growth of the bicycle industry and the class menetration of cycling
C. Global expansion
D. Speed and modernity
– Sport as moral/physical crusade and sport as business